Short Communication

Nanometer-scale distribution of PD-1 in the melanoma tumor microenvironment

Colin J Comerci, Dannielle G McCarthy, Mehdi Nosrati, Kevin B Kim, Mohammed Kashani-Sabet, WE Moerner* and Stanley P Leong*

Published: 10 May, 2023 | Volume 7 - Issue 1 | Pages: 020-025

The nanometer-scale spatial organization of immune receptors plays a role in cell activation and suppression. While the connection between this spatial organization and cell signaling events is emerging from cell culture experiments, how these results translate to more physiologically relevant settings like the tumor microenvironment remains poorly understood due to the challenges of high-resolution imaging in vivo. Here we perform super-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy of human melanoma tissue sections to examine the spatial organization of the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). We show that PD-1 exhibits a variety of organizations ranging from nanometer-scale clusters to more uniform membrane labeling. Our results demonstrate the capability of super-resolution imaging to examine the spatial organization of immune checkpoint markers in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting a future direction for both clinical and immunology research.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jro.1001048 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy; Tumor microenvironment; Melanoma; Immune checkpoint inhibitor; PD-1


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